2561 มาแล้วค่ะ วัน เสาร์ที่ 14 กรกฎาคม 2561 เวลา 09. 10 แบบ ไส้ 9 ไส้ แถมสูตรทาร์ตไข่ วัน อาทิตย์ 22 กรกฎาคม 2561 เวลา 09. ช็อคโกแลต 7-11 มาแล้วค่ะ วันอาทิตย์ที่ 3 มิถุนายน เวลา 09.
2 มีมานำเสนออีกแล้วคะ ช่วยเศรษฐกิจแบบนี้ต้องประหยัดคะ ดังนั้นของเหลืออะไรที่สามารถนำมาแปลรูปเป็นของอร่อยได้ จงอย่ารอช้า อิอิ. Chocolate is a usually sweet, brown food preparation of roasted and ground cacao seeds. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted. Although cocoa originated in the Americas, recent years have seen African nations assuming a leading role in producing cocoa. Since the 2000s, Western Africa produces almost two-thirds of the world’s cocoa, with Ivory Coast growing almost half of that amount.
Cacao, pronounced by the Olmecs as kakawa, dates to 1000 BC or earlier. The word “chocolate” entered the English language from Spanish in about 1600. A Maya lord forbids an individual from touching a container of chocolate. Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, Mexico, dates chocolate’s preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. Volcanic stone, traces of red pigment. Mayan tomb from the site in Rio Azul had vessels with the Maya glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink, suggests the Maya were drinking chocolate around 400 AD.
Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life. By the 15th century, the Aztecs gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and adopted cacao into their culture. They associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, who, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans, and identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice. The Aztecs were not able to grow cacao themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire. Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cacao seeds in payment of the tax they deemed “tribute”. The Maya and Aztecs associated cacao with human sacrifice, and chocolate drinks specifically with sacrificial human blood.
Chocolate soon became a fashionable drink of the European nobility after the discovery of the Americas. Until the 16th century, no European had ever heard of the popular drink from the Central American peoples. Loathsome to such as are not acquainted with it, having a scum or froth that is very unpleasant to taste. Yet it is a drink very much esteemed among the Indians, where with they feast noble men who pass through their country. The Spaniards, both men and women, that are accustomed to the country, are very greedy of this Chocolaté. While Columbus had taken cacao beans with him back to Spain, chocolate made no impact until Spanish friars introduced it to the Spanish court.
After the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, chocolate was imported to Europe. There, it quickly became a court favorite. Fry’s produced the first chocolate bar in 1847, which was then mass-produced as Fry’s Chocolate Cream in 1866. The new craze for chocolate brought with it a thriving slave market, as between the early 1600s and late 1800s, the laborious and slow processing of the cacao bean was manual.
Cacao plantations spread, as the English, Dutch, and French colonized and planted. With the depletion of Mesoamerican workers, largely to disease, cacao production was often the work of poor wage laborers and African slaves. New processes that sped the production of chocolate emerged early in the Industrial Revolution. In 1815, Dutch chemist Coenraad van Houten introduced alkaline salts to chocolate, which reduced its bitterness.
In the 1850s, Englishman Joseph Fry invented the world’s first solid chocolate. Known as “Dutch cocoa”, this machine-pressed chocolate was instrumental in the transformation of chocolate to its solid form when, in 1847, English chocolatier Joseph Fry discovered a way to make chocolate moldable when he mixed the ingredients of cocoa powder and sugar with melted cocoa butter. Besides Nestlé, a number of notable chocolate companies had their start in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rowntree’s of York set up and began producing chocolate in 1862, after buying out the Tuke family business. Cadbury was manufacturing boxed chocolates in England by 1868. Several types of chocolate can be distinguished. Pure, unsweetened chocolate, often called “baking chocolate”, contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions.
Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, which combines chocolate with sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that also contains milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate, although similar in texture to that of milk and dark chocolate, does not contain any cocoa solids. Because of this, many countries do not consider white chocolate as chocolate at all.